About Wąsosz

Wąsosz, (pronounced Vonosh) is located in Bialystok Voivodship (province) of Poland at 22 degrees 19 minutes East longitude, 53 degrees 31 minutes North latitude, 42 miles (70 km) northwest of Bialystok.  It is also in the Lomza Gubernia. Some estimates of population follow:

Year 1799 1808 1827 1857 1923
Total Population 731 770 1022 1389 1746
Number of Jews 71 14 280 453 338
Percent of Jews 9.7% 1.8% 24.7% 32.6% 19.4%

In 1923, the following description is given of Wąsosz.

Rural settlement in the Szczuczyn district, civ[il] court in Szczuczyn, district court in Lomza, population 1746, [railroad] 20km Grajewo, post office in Grajewo.  Village community (location of the gmina government office in the rural settlement). [Editor's Note: gmina is Polish equivalent of the Russian "Volost"-smallest territorial unit in the pre-1917 Russia].

In 1943, the following report is given about Wąsosz by the Grajewo Regional Administration:

Year 1939 1941 1942 Expulsions 1941 Exterminations 1942
of Jews
800 1200 15 1135 15 to the Milbo Estate
Notes (Estimated figures
includes non-locals)
Locally (Estimated)
To Transit
Camp Bogosza Ð
from there to

A description from a recent Polish publication:

Wąsosz. Village on the Wissa River, a part of the ancient water way and a landing at Wizna in the direction of Prus. It is an old district town in the rural lands, currently the location of the gmina government, and a local agricultural center.

The village, called initially Wąsosze-at-the-Confluence [of two tributaries at Wissa], was called "Wąsoszy" [in a local dialect], was founded by a Count's land surveyor named Jasek from Romany, financed by grants from Janusz the First in the years 1425 and 1428. It was granted the rights of a city in 1436. In the second half of the 15th century, there was a customs station and a landing on the road to Prus. The town was destroyed during the war against Sweden in 1655-56, called locally "The Flood". According to a legend, there lived and fought here Henryk Sienkewicz's literary hero, Rzadzian from Wąsosz. The Inn "Pokrzyk" where Butrym fought with Kmicic, was situated in the area of today's Sienkewicz Street, on the road to the village of Widra.

A Town Hall was built in 1789 and almost all streets were covered with cobble stone. On the 25th of June, 1794, a regiment lead by Lieutenant-Colonel Tadeusz Niewiarowski fought Prussian troops in Wąsosz and drove them in the direction of Szczuczyn. Wąsosz was no longer a part of the district in the early 19th century. The Town Hall was in disrepair in 1825 and the Carmelite Order was closed in 1864. Wąsosz lost the rights of a city in 1870. In the late 19th century, economic revitalization [in Wąsosz] took place.

The old city layout is well preserved; its center is the large market (Rzadziana Square) with six streets crossing each other. A Carmelite Cathedral is situated in the Western side of the Northern corner of the square. A parish cathedral is located to the South-West of the market, separated from the latter by the market structures. A wooden town hall stood in the market square until 1835.

The following is from Pinkas haKehilot (Translated by Stan Goodman)

The rural village of Wąsosz, which is about 5 km from Szcuczyn received its warrant, permitting it to be founded, from Prince Polocek, Wladislaw I, in 1436. In the course of time, Wąsosz became an important economic center of the region. Trade in cattle feed, lumber, hides and honey intended for export to Lithuania was concentrated in Wąsosz, which rapidly developed. There were among its' resident many artisans, of various occupations, especially blacksmiths, metalworkers, and harness makers. In 1674 there were 300 houses in Wąsosz, and the number of inhabitants was about 1800. Wąsosz was seriously damaged by the war with Sweden in the 1650's many houses were destroyed, and only about 150 families remained. The town did not return to its previous status, and began to rebuild only in the 19th century. Until the end of the 18th century, the Jewish population consisted of only a few families, and their number increased throughout the 19th century .Most of these were small traders and artisans. At the end of the 19th century, many of the latter were tailors and shoemakers. In 1892, of the 29 artisans in the place, 21 were Jews. Several of the wealthier Jews were farmers, and worked nearby fields. Because of the small number of Jews and the lack of money, the community was unable to develop the usual public institutions. It can be assumed that, as usual in such small communities, only a ritual slaughterer was employed in Wąsosz, and he would have been the authority for household kashrut. A Beit Midrash (study house) was built at the beginning of the 20th century. During the First World War and the following years, some of the Jews left the village, and the Jewish population contracted. Just as in other towns and villages of Poland, the Jews of Wąsosz suffered from anti-Semitic attacks during the 1930's Wąsosz was one of the places in which the anti-Jewish economic boycott was especially thorough. In 1934 there were anti-Jewish riots, in which Jews were attacked physically and their property looted. The Police arrested several rioters, and the court sentenced them to imprisonment of terms between two weeks and two months, but these sentences were reduced upon appeal. Tensions increased subsequently, and were especially strong on market and fair days. During the Second World War, the Wehrmacht conquered Wąsosz in the second week of the war. At the end of September, 1939 Wasosz, together with the rest of the Szczuczyn area, was transferred to Soviet control, in accordance with the Ribbentrop-Molotov agreement of 23 August 1939. Units of the German Army reentered Wąsosz on 22 June 1941, at which time there were in Wąsosz between 400 and 600 Jews, locals and refugees from elsewhere. This echelon of the Wehrmacht then advanced further and left Wąsosz; the Jews were not harmed at this point.

In the second week of the German occupation, after the combat troops had left the village, a Polish police force was established, consisting of local thugs. On 5 July 1941, these surrounded Wąsosz, so that not a single Jew could escape from it. Gangs of Poles then went from house to house, and murdered the Jewish inhabitants brutally, inside their homes and in the streets. They raped women, sliced of their breasts, and smashed the skulls of children against walls. Not leaving even the dead in peace, the cut off fingers to obtain rings and removed teeth with gold inlays. The Polish neighbors of the murdered Jews distributed the Jewish property among themselves. The corpses were buried in a mass grave which was dug in the farm fields adjacent to the village.

When Germans arrived in Wąsosz after these events, they found in the village fifteen Jews alive, whom they left in Wąsosz until 1 July 1942, under the supervision of the local German gendarmerie. On that date the fifteen were transferred to the Milbo estate, which was under the direct control of the Landesrat (German governor) of Grajewo. About 500 Jews of the area were employed there in various works. On 2 November 1942, these were all moved to the transit camp at Bogosza, and from there to the extermination camps at Treblinka and Oswiecim (Auschwitz). No trace of Jews remained in Wąsosz.

Photos of Wąsosz

By Tomas Wisniewski (2001)


Residential Street

Main Street

Monument at Cemetery


By Polish Express, Inc. (2003)

Welcome to Wąsosz

Old Housing
(Similar to Family Homes)

View of Cemetery with Monument

Modern Street

City Park

Modern Housing

In 2003, The NEDAR Foundation retained Polish Express, Inc. to travel to the Wąsosz area of Poland. Their researcher visited the Bialystok, Lomza and Elk branches of the Polish States Archives as well as the Wąsosz Local Records Office. The researcher took the photos shown above and spent a week poring over record books. Over 125 documents were located and copied. While not all involving ancestors, these showed much about the life in Wąsosz. Although a small town, primarily agrarian in nature the citizens of Wąsosz included many who were much more urbane than one would suppose. They participated in Jewish organizational life in Lomza,

Among the documents located was the following Charter which may very well represent an organization which would have attracted many of our ancestors.

Charter of Jewish Territorial Society was printed in Russian. It was found by a researcher employed by The Nedar Foundation in the Lomza Branch of the Polish State Archives. This may indicate that there was an affiliate section (cell) branch in Lomza. The Charter refers to a location of the Society as Warsaw (see Sect. 21), however Sect. 9 & Sect. 13 below indicates that other locations for the Society could be established.

Translation from Russian to English by Simon Gisin and edited by Daniel Hershberg follows:

Jewish Territorial (Land Acquiring) Society is registered and placed in the Official Book for Registering and Validation of Societies and Unions of the Warsaw gubernatorial province under Number No 64 on January 24, 1907, city of Warsaw. Foundation for the registering is the decision of the Warsaw Office governing the affairs of Societies on January 19, 1907.

CHAIRMAN (Baron Vrevskiy)


of the Jewish Territorial (Land Acquiring) Society

1.Official name of the "Society the Jewish Territorial (Land Acquiring) Society". (abbreviated herein as "the Society")

Objective of the Society

2.The Society has as its purpose to help for Jewish emigrants in seeking and acquiring a free territory outside of Europe for autonomic residence, if they cannot or do not intend to stay in their existing places of residence.

Note, The Society does not promulgate or encourage emigration. It treats and concerns about only those lawful Jewish emigrants who willingly and consciously intend to leave Russia and move into other countries. It has goal to gather and concentrate all Jewish emigrants, in one free place outside Europe, as it would be possible

Region of activity of the Society

3. The region of activity of the Society is limited by the borders of Russia

4. For fulfillment of its purposes, the Society will carry out the activities listed below: 1) The Society will focus its efforts on: developing methods and actions for seeking and acquiring land outside Europe for autonomous living (of Jews); financial and other practical help to the Jewish emigrants from Russia, especially, for starting agricultural and manufacturing settlements outside Europe; informational support for immigration aimed on acquaintance about new countries including laws and rules, ways, and methods of transportation into them, etc.; directing expeditions for research and surveying land offering by governmental authorities outside Europe for Jewish emigrants to acquire and establish autonomic settlements; establishing bureaus and offices focused to inform emigrants with rules and regulations pertaining to transferring, clarify them conditions and features of life in a new place; fundraising money and developing methods to provide above mentioned activities of the Society.  2)  The Society enter into contacts and negotiations with appropriate governmental, public, private organizations, institutions, and persons according to the declared activities of the Society, communicates with them, discusses all necessary questions and tries to solve problems pertaining to the main goals of the Society.  The Society intercommunicates with authorities in the areas of emigration and colonization, conducts negotiations, prepares agreements and establishes contracts with local and international financial institutions inside Russia as well as outside it. The Society, trough its Directorial Board and/or delegates elected on its local conferences participates in the international conventions and congresses outside and inside Russia.

5. The members of the Society may be the persons of both genders if they are agree to facilitate the goals of the Society and contribute membership fee at least 50 kopeks per year.

[Note of Interpreter: 100 "kopeks" are equal to one "ruble", similarly to proportion of cents and dollar. My grandfather told me that in Russia during the beginning of the 20th century that one ruble was enough to buy food for one day for a large family.]

6. Members are accepted and enrolled in the Society by the decision of the Governing Board.

7.Members pay their membership fees to the special cashiers elected by the General Meeting. The cashiers give in return to the members receipts of payment issued by the Executive Committee. If members did not pay stipulated membership fees before the first of July of the current year, their membership would lapse.

Management: Structure and Voting

8.There are three managing bodies in the Society: a) Governing Board, b) Executive Committee (a part of the Governing Board) which works permanently and carries out the main activities, c) General Meeting (Assembly) that is called and gathered periodically (and has supreme legislative power.)

9.The General Meeting elects the Governing Board for the term of one year.  The Governing Board consists of 9 members or more. The Executive Committee has at least 5 members from the members already elected in the Governing Board and having permanent residence in the city where the Society is located.  Among its elected members the Governing Board elects a Chairman of the Society and a Deputy of Chairman who are managers in charge of the Executive Committee.

10.The Executive Committee carries out all current affairs and routine activities to achieve the goals of the Society mentioned above. It solves current problems, and makes most of the practical decisions with the exception of those which are included only in the charge the Governing Board and the General Meeting.  It has right to hold the balance and control all assets with the definite restrictions.  If the Executive Committee starts some new enterprise or is going to spend money above approved budget, it must to get consent from all members of the Governing Board.  The Executive Committee must provide regular meetings of all members of the Governing Board, at least once per year and more often where practical; for example, every time when it would be necessary to consider, elaborate, and approve any important decision.  The agenda of the meeting, information about state of affairs, and planned actions should be submitted by the Executive Committee to all members of Governing Board in advance before the yearly meeting.  The Executive Committee must systematically and regularly provide the Governing Board current information about its work and the state of affairs of the Society

11.The Chairman of the Society performs the highest functions of management in the Governing Board including the Executive Committee which is the permanently working part of the Governing Board.  The Deputy Chairman performs duties of a supreme manager on the occasion of non-attendance the Chairman. If both, the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Society cannot execute their managerial functions, an available member of the Executive Committee must perform the managerial duties.  He should be elected as a Temporary Chairman by other members of the Executive Committee each time when they are gathered to solve problems.  All decisions and discordances among the members of the Executive Committee are solved by the simple majority of votes; however, the ChairmanÕs vote will prevail for the final decision.  The internal rules and orders of conducting all current activities inside the managing bodies and inside the entire Society are subjects of Regulations which developed by the Governing Board and submitted to the General Meeting. After accepting and confirmation the Regulations by the General Meeting they shall become by-laws. 

12.The decisions of the Governing Board as well as the Executive Committee are valid only if at least three members of the governing body attend the meeting.

13.The Society establishes and opens affiliate sections (cells) of the Society throughout all of Russia as it would be expedient, possible, and necessary.  The Governing Board decides about region of activity, features, and internal structure of each affiliate section.  In the governing bodies of the affiliate sections only local residents are elected by voting the members of the local sections of the Society.

14.The Society arranges and carry out meetings, public readings, and sessions to inform the general public about its goals, clarify its program, explain its activities in full compliance with established (in Russia) rules.  The Society holds conventions and conferences and strives to attract positive attention of the public and achieve the goals of the Society.

Revenue of the Society

15.The Society has following sources of revenue:  Membership contributions, Charitable contributions and gifts, Bequests, Income from charitable actions and charitable entertainments.  The charitable entertainments include: charitable bazaars, concerts and performances - theatrical, musical, literature declamations, ballroom dances, etc..  All charitable activities shall be carried out in concordance with all laws established by the government.

General Meetings

16.There are two kinds of the General Meetings: regular and extra-ordinary. The regular General Meetings are planned and assembled once per each year. The extra-ordinary General Meetings are arranged to convene by request of the Governing Board or by request of numbers of members of the Society on the occasion of special necessity. Preparing and calling together members of the Society for both regular and extra-ordinary General Meetings are included in the duties of the Executive Committee.  The Executive Committee must announce the date and agenda of any General Meetings by publishing this information in newspapers chosen by the Governing Board.  This publication should be made one month before the date of assembling, so all members of the Society could be well informed.

17.The Governing Board carries out all current affairs and routine activities of the Society. It makes most of practical decisions with exception of those which includes only in the charge of the General Meeting.  The following actions and rights are solely included (but not limited) in the charge of the General Meeting:  Creation of Governing Board and election of its members, Election the Auditing Committee, Analysis, evaluation, and confirmation the annual progress report/account of the Governing Board, Analysis, evaluation, and confirmation of the annual account of Auditing Committee, especially, about execution of the budget and financial activity, Amending, if necessary, the Charter of the Society or other connected statues, by-laws, rules, Appointing commissions for conducting research or solving problems with scientific elements, Electing delegates representing the Society at conventions, conferences, etc.

18.A simple majority of votes is enough for making and confirmation the most of decisions of the General Meeting with the exception of the following decisions connected with fundamental matters which require 2/3 of the votes.  Majority of two third votes is necessary for decisions made in the case of the following actions: Amending the Charter of the Society (or statutes, by-laws ), Dissolving, closing and concluding the Society, Distribution or other use of the assets and properties of the Society in case of its dissolution.  If a General Meeting was cancelled by reason of missing too many members, so (quorum) attendance was less then 2/3 of numbers the member, the next (repeated) General Meeting should be organized for one month later.   The decision of the second General Meeting will be valid and lawful independent of the attendance of members on the repeated Meeting.

19.The Executive Committee after the end of the each operational year prepares the Progress Report, which includes state of affairs and an accounting report .  Progress Report should be submitted to the regular General Meeting which is held yearly.  The General Meeting decides where and how to hold or invest finances of the Society, how to manage properties of the Society, and what details should be included and clarified in the annual Progress Report.

20.The General Meeting elects the Auditing Committee to analyze the Report of the Executive Committee.  The number of members of the Auditing Committee, rules and order how to conduct analysis and submit conclusion to the General Meeting are subjects in the charge of the General Meeting.

21.The location of the Jewish Territorial Society is the city of Warsaw.

22.The following persons are cofounders of the Jewish Territorial Society: 1. Barrister, Isidor Wladimirowitch Yasinovskiy, 2. Editor of the newspaper 'Jewish Diary', Noakh Yankelewitch Finkelstein, 3. Merchant, David Leibowitch Chakh. All three of these people are permanent residents of the city of Warsaw and have addresses: 1st  person--#15 Capuccinskiy Street, 2nd person--#8  2nd Kholodnaya Street, 3rd person--#7  Krootchaya Street

23.In occasion and necessity to dissolve and conclude activities of the Society, the General Meeting shall decide about the purposes and distribution of the assets of the Society by voting.  Attendance and consensus of majority in two third of voters are necessary for the validity of such decision.

(Signatures of cofounders)  Barrister Isidor W. Yasinovskiy, Editor Noakh Yankelewitch-Bearowitch Finkelstein, Merchant, David Leibowitch Chakh 

Many would note the similarities between this organizational structure and that of modern Jewish communal groups.  Another charter for a Jewish musical, literary and dramatic society was also located.

Charter of GAZOMIR (Jewish Musical, Literary and Dramatic Society) was printed in Russian.  It was found by a researcher employed by The Nedar Foundation in the Lomza Branch of the Polish State Archives.  Inconsistent numbering is as per the original document.

Translation from Russian to English by Daniel Gould edited by Daniel Hershberg follows:

(Stamps in upper left corner: 60 kopecks and 15 kopecks.)

of the Lomza Jewish Musical, Literary and Dramatic Society "Gazomir"


1.The Society "Gazomir" has as its goal:  a)The development and proliferation of music, choral singing and dramatic art among the population in the City of Lomza and its environs and the familiarization of Society members with the best Jewish literary works: I) through the means of practicing the performance of musical, and dramatic plays, predominantly of Jewish authors and Jewish themes; II) by arranging public concerts, plays, readings and recitations, rendering significant help to people dedicated to musical and dramatic education, and III) by the announcement of competitions for best musical, dramatic and literary works of art of Jewish authors, and b) To give Society members the opportunity to spend their time free from studies pleasantly and to good use.

2.The activity of this Charter encompasses the City of Lomza and its environs.

3.To achieve the Society's goals, its members are allowed to gather for mastery and performing of musical and dramatic plays, reciting exercises and arranging concerts, performances and musical-literary parties. Note: No political agitation is allowed at Society meetings.

4. The Society has the right to open the library and reading room for its members.

5.The Society has the right to establish an honor court for the resolving of disputes which can arise between members of the Society in the interest of relations with this very Society.

6. The society in all relationships submits to all existing and future rules and statutes which may be issued for such societies.

7.The Society has a press with a superscription of its name.

II.Society Membership

8.Society members can be people of either gender, in accordance with the goals of this Society. Note: The number of members is not limited.

9. Members of the Society are divided into honorary, active and auxiliary. Honorary members are elected by the General Assembly by a majority of 2/3 of the votes, ones who occupy a visible place in the field of Jewish music or Jewish science, or who render certain services to the Society; active Society members are, in essence, people taking part in singing, Society orchestras, reading and recitations, whereas auxiliary members are, in essence, people who empathize with the Society's problems and who enable, as the opportunity arises, its spiritual and material development.

10.A person wishing to join the Society's membership will hand in a written statement of same to the Board, supplied with signatures of two Society members recommending him or her. Note: Within one month from the day of the statement to join mentioned in this section, the Board will decide to accept the petitioner into Society membership or deny into same with an explanation or, at least, reasons.

11.Active members and auxiliary members pay dues into the Society of 1 ruble upon joining and 5 rubles annually thereafter, but both types of members can, if they wish, take advantage of periodic annual dues in half-year and quarter-year intervals; honorary members, however, are freed from all monetary dues. Note: The Board has the right to waive member dues from payment for dependent active members or reduce the amount of such dues.

12.Society members are removed from membership as a result of:  a) non-payment of membership dues for a year after a third written reminder about it;  b) discovery of circumstances  (Section 6 established) which prevent members, by force of acting laws, to remain in the membership; and c) the violation of this Charter or generally accepted rules regarding the honor and decency of any member.  d) In the first two situations the removal is carried out by the Board, whereas in the latter situation regarding the member's behavior, the Board will bring the matter to light before the General Assembly which will decide on his or her exclusion. Note: The member who has been removed due to non-payment of membership dues can be reinstated as indicated in Section II of this Charter.

III. Society Means

13.Society means consist of: a) membership dues; b) proceeds from arranging public musical and literary parties, secular and spiritual concerts, readings, performances, bazaars, strolls, etc; c) voluntary donations and charities from last wills and testaments and d) incidental revenue.

IV.Governance of Society Affairs

14.Governance of Society affairs is entrusted to: a) the Board and b) the General Assembly.

V.The Board

15.The Board is comprised of a chairperson, six indispensable members, a treasurer and a steward, elected by the General Assembly from the Society's membership for one year. For the replacement of an exiting or absent chairperson or Board members, the General Assembly elects a comrade chairperson and six more candidates. Note I: The Board has the right to invite to its meetings Society members and non-Board members, and, in other situations, when considering issues, the resolution of which demand knowledge of some kind of specialty, the Board is within its right to invite those types of people who are not Society members. Note II: Each Society member is entitled to address the Board with various proposals which are intended to promote the Society's development and achieving its goals; such proposals must be examined by the Board within one month of receiving them in the presence of a project leader, and in the absence of the latter at the meeting in which the proposal will be examined, the Board will inform him of the resolution no later than fourteen days from its decision.

16.The Board meeting is considered a quorum with the presence of a chairperson or his comrade and no less than three indispensable Board members. Matters are decided there by a simple majority of votes, and in the event of a tie vote, the chairperson will cast the deciding vote.

17.Board meetings are appointed by the chairperson as convenient, but not less than once a week.

18.A Board member who is absent from three meetings in a row without presenting valid reasons is considered to have quit the Board and is replaced by the next candidate.

19.Board obligations include:

a.the acceptance of Society members;

b.the division of activities and labor between Board members and members of the musical, literary and dramatic commission;

c.the appointment of the musical, literary and dramatic commission, a secretary, librarian and other indispensable Board collaborators;

d.the hiring and firing of a conductor and other Society workers, the naming of their salaries and the supervision of their activity;

e.the stewardship of accurate revenue of Society income, keeping an inventory of it, the proper use of same for Society needs and proper accounting;

f.the arrangement of parties, concerts, readings and other Society enterprises;

g.the supervision of musical, literary, and dramatic staging and the procurement of means for artistic, spiritual and material development and Society success;

h.the observance of precise execution of this Charter and the General Assembly's resolutions;

i.the reporting of accounts of Society activity for the past year and estimates of expenses for the present year;

j.the correspondence and relations with governmental and private institutions and

k.the advertisement of all contests for the best musical, literary and dramatic works of art.>

20.The Board maintains a book of protocol in which all its decisions are noted, the like of which are authenticated with the signatures of all its present members. The outgoing papers are signed by the chairman and ratified by the secretary with the affixing of a seal. Note: Board resolutions are orally told to Society members by their wish for same.

21.For the auditing of Society capital and matters, an auditing commission of three Society members is elected annually by the Assembly. Results of the audit undertaken are written in the books on the subject with signatures of all commission members.

22.The Society Board is located in the City of Lomza.

VI.General Assembly

23.General assemblies are called together as convenient at the discretion of the Board or by a quorum of no less than twenty Society members and the auditing commission as well, but never less than once a year and no later than the first of March each year.

24.Society members are notified about the setting up of General Assemblies, at the very least, one week before the date via notices with the time, place and subjects of business of these meetings designated on them.

25.The chairperson conducts the General Assembly, elected each time by this Assembly from the Society members belonging to the Board and the auditing commission.

26.Matters in the General Assemblies are decided on in no other way than with a quorum of half of Society membership, with the exception of questions of terminating the Society, additions to, alterations to and departures from the rules of this Charter, which are decided on with a quorum of three-quarters of Society membership.

27.Matters in General Assemblies are decided on by a simple majority of votes, and in the case of a tie vote, the chairperson's vote decides, but on questions regarding the termination of the Society, alterations to, and departures from the rules of this Charter are decided on by a majority of no less than three-quarters of the present members.

28.If the General Assembly's quorum is not met, it will be called together a second time for discussion of those very questions no later than two weeks following, and this meeting is considered to have a quorum with any number of those present. For the deciding, though, of an issue about the terminating of the Society, the presence of three-quarters of Society members is required.

29.Subjects of business of the General Assemblies consist of:

a.the election of Board members, treasurer, steward, honorary members, members of the auditing commission and members of the honor court;

b.the approval of instructions to internal regulations for the Board, the auditing commission, the honor court and individual official Society people;

c.verification of actions of the Board;

d.discussion and approval of annual accounts and budgets established by the Board;

e.deciding issues about the alteration to, addition to and departure from the rules of the Charter and about the dissolution of the Society;

f.the deciding of issues about the exclusion of members from the Society and

g.the examination of applications of the Board, the auditing commission and Society members, as well as complaints submitted to the Board for decisions and actions.


30.In the Society, books are kept which contain a list of members, the income and expenditures of all Society transactions and any other kind, as well as all necessary auxiliary books for the correct attainment of accountability.

31.An annual accounting must include the joining and leaving of members, income and expenditures and the resultant profit or loss.

32.The accounting of the Society is between 1 January and 31 December.

33.The accounting for the past year must be finalized and signed by Board members and verified by the auditing commission at least two weeks before the annual General Assembly.

VI.Dissolution of the Society

34.In the event of the Society's cessation of its activity, all capital and property belonging to it which comes out of liquidation free and clear will be put, by the determination of the General Assembly, to a good cause which is in accordance with Society goals.

Society founders are listed below:


1.Yakov Yudelevich Kaufman;

2. Zusl Abramovich Blidubrovsky;


3.   Itsko-Meyer Movshovich Gerber.

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